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Commas, Part 5

Rule – Use a comma to separate the city from the state, and always put one after the state, also.
Example:
I lived in Denver, Colorado, for 20 years.

NOTE: The U.S. Postal Service’s two-letter capitalized abbreviations (e.g., CO for Colorado, IL for Illinois) are not recommended in formal writing. However, when writing an address on an envelope, you should follow U.S. Postal Service guidelines. These guidelines are covered in our blog “Writing Addresses.”

Rule – Use commas to set off expressions that interrupt sentence flow.
Example:
I am, as you have probably noticed, very nervous about this.

 

Pop Quiz

1A. The New England Patriots, have played their home football games in Foxborough, Massachusetts, since 1971.
1B. The New England Patriots have played their home football games in Foxborough, Massachusetts since 1971.
1C. The New England Patriots have played their home football games in Foxborough, Massachusetts, since 1971.

2A. Janet has lived in New Orleans, Louisiana, her entire life.
2B. Janet has lived in New Orleans, Louisiana her entire life.
2C. Janet, has lived in New Orleans, Louisiana, her entire life.

3A. I agreed, although I regretted the decision later, to loan our car to Miriam.
3B. I agreed although I regretted the decision later, to loan our car to Miriam.
3C. I agreed although I regretted the decision later to loan our car to Miriam.

 

Pop Quiz Answers

1C. The New England Patriots have played their home football games in Foxborough, Massachusetts, since 1971.

2A. Janet has lived in New Orleans, Louisiana, her entire life.

3A. I agreed, although I regretted the decision later, to loan our car to Miriam.

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Posted on Sunday, December 16, 2012, at 3:27 pm


Commas, Part 4

Rule – Use commas to set off the name or title of a person directly addressed.
Examples:
Will you, Aisha, do that assignment for me?
Yes, Doctor, I will. NOTE: Capitalize a title when directly addressing someone.
Joshua, please remember to buy lettuce.
Please remember to buy lettuce, Joshua.

Rule – Use commas to surround degrees or titles used with names. Commas are no longer required around Jr. and Sr. Commas never set off II, III, and so forth.
Example:
Al Mooney, MD, knew Sam Sunny Jr. and Charles Starr III.

Pop Quiz
1A. The defendant has accused you Mr. Dempsey of trying to steal his credit card.
1B. The defendant has accused you, Mr. Dempsey of trying to steal his credit card.
1C. The defendant has accused you, Mr. Dempsey, of trying to steal his credit card.

2A. The injury to Robert Griffin III does not appear to be serious.
2B. The injury to Robert Griffin, III does not appear to be serious.
2C. The injury to Robert Griffin, III, does not appear to be serious.

3A. I am sorry professor that my paper is late.
3B. I am sorry, Professor, that my paper is late.
3C. I am sorry, professor, that my paper is late.

4A. Grover Washington Jr. has an appointment today with Orin Scrivello DDS.
4B. Grover Washington, Jr. has an appointment today with Orin Scrivello, DDS.
4C. Grover Washington, Jr., has an appointment today with Orin Scrivello, DDS.
4D. Grover Washington Jr. has an appointment today with Orin Scrivello, DDS.

Pop Quiz Answers
1C. The defendant has accused you, Mr. Dempsey, of trying to steal his credit card.
2A. The injury to Robert Griffin III does not appear to be serious.
3B. I am sorry, Professor, that my paper is late.
4D. Grover Washington Jr. has an appointment today with Orin Scrivello, DDS.
NOTE: Answer “4C. Grover Washington, Jr., has an appointment today with Orin Scrivello, DDS,” also is acceptable but the commas surrounding Jr. are no longer required.

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Posted on Tuesday, December 11, 2012, at 3:25 pm


Commas, Part 3

In “Commas, Parts 1 and 2,” we gave you four rules for how to use a comma. In this lesson, we’ll examine a more advanced concept for using the comma.

Rule: Use a comma to separate two adjectives when the adjectives are interchangeable.

Examples:
He is a strong, healthy man.
We could also say a healthy, strong man.

We stayed at an expensive summer resort.
We would not say summer expensive resort, so no comma.

NOTE: Words ending in -ly are not always adverbs. Many adjectives also end in -ly (e.g., lonely, friendly, kindly (may be an adverb or an adjective), family (may be a noun or an adjective). To test whether an -ly word is an adjective, see if it can be used alone with the noun.

Examples:
Felix was a lonely, confused boy. (Lonely is an adjective because it can be used alone with boy.)
I get headaches in brightly lit rooms. (Brightly is not an adjective because it cannot be used alone with rooms; therefore, no comma is used between brightly and lit.)

Pop Quiz
Choose the sentence with the correct punctuation. Answers are at the bottom.

1A. Juanita has grown up to be a lovely, intelligent woman.
1B. Juanita has grown up to be a lovely intelligent woman.

2A. Be careful before walking on the hot, sharp lava.
2B. Be careful before walking on the hot sharp lava.

3A. That was a wonderfully, delicious dinner we had last night.
3B. That was a wonderfully delicious dinner we had last night.

4A. Edward seems very proud of his bright, red car.
4B. Edward seems very proud of his bright red car.

 

Pop Quiz Answers

1A. Juanita has grown up to be a lovely, intelligent woman.
2A. Be careful before walking on the hot, sharp lava.
3B. That was a wonderfully delicious dinner we had last night.
4B. Edward seems very proud of his bright red car.

 

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Posted on Saturday, November 24, 2012, at 12:41 pm


Commas, Part 1

There are many uses for the comma in English grammar. Let’s look at a couple of them.

Rule 1: To avoid confusion, use commas to separate words and word groups with a series of three or more.

Examples:

John likes to eat a hearty breakfast of pancakes, sausage, toast, and chocolate!

(Omitting the comma after toast might cause a reader to think that toast and chocolate together formed one food item rather than two separate items that John enjoyed eating at breakfast.)

Sally danced in ballet classes, school productions, and community shows.

Rule 2a: Use a comma to separate the day of the month from the year, and also place one after the year.

Examples:

Jim Thompson gave his historic speech on March 3, 2002, in Chicago, Illinois.

Kathleen met her husband on December 5, 2003, in Mill Valley, California.

Rule 2b: If any part of the date is omitted, leave out the comma.

Example:

They met in December 2003 in Mill Valley.

Quiz:

Choose the sentence with the correct punctuation.

1A. Mr. Baker teaches high school courses in history, math, and physical education.

1B. Mr. Baker teaches high school courses in history, math and physical education.

2A. The couple’s vacation is scheduled to end on January 2 2010.

2B. The couple’s vacation is scheduled to end on January 2, 2010.

3A. The vice president of the group was elected back in March 1998.

3B. The vice president of the group was elected back in March, 1998.

Answers:

1A. Mr. Baker teaches high school courses in history, math, and physical education.

2B. The couple’s vacation is scheduled to end on January 2, 2010.

3A. The vice president of the group was elected back in March 1998.

 

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Posted on Wednesday, October 24, 2012, at 6:59 pm


Commas, Part 2

Today, we’ll examine two more uses for the comma.

Rule 1: If something or someone is sufficiently identified, the description following it is considered nonessential and should be surrounded by commas.

Examples:
Freddy, who has a limp, was in an automobile accident.
(Freddy is named, so the description of him that immediately follows is not essential.)

The boy who has a limp was in an automobile accident.
(We do not know which boy is being referred to without having that further description; therefore, it is essential and no commas are used.)

Joanna Ferguson, a senior English major, is the best athlete in the school.
(Joanna is named, so the description that immediately follows is not essential.)

The crew members who work in our building are very friendly.
(We don’t know which crew members are being referred to without the description that follows, so no commas are used.)

Rule 2: Use the comma to separate two sentences if it will help avoid confusion.

Examples:
I chose the colors red and green, and blue was his first choice.

He will coach his younger son, and his older son will help tutor the children on the team.

Pop Quiz

Choose the sentence with the correct punctuation.

1A. Julie Andrews one of the most famous film stars in history starred in The Sound of Music.

1B. Julie Andrews, one of the most famous film stars in history, starred in The Sound of Music.

2A. I saw the girl with the red hair at the grocery store last night.

2B. I saw the girl, with the red hair, at the grocery store last night.

3A. Susan had to say the words slowly, and quickly he looked up to see she was crying.

3B. Susan had to say the words slowly and quickly he looked up to see she was crying.

Answers to Pop Quiz

Correct answers indicated by an asterisk (*).

1A. Julie Andrews one of the most famous film stars in history starred in The Sound of Music.

1B.* Julie Andrews, one of the most famous film stars in history, starred in The Sound of Music.

2A.* I saw the girl with the red hair at the grocery store last night.

2B. I saw the girl, with the red hair, at the grocery store last night.

3A.* Susan had to say the words slowly, and quickly he looked up to see she was crying.

3B. Susan had to say the words slowly and quickly he looked up to see she was crying.

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Posted on Tuesday, August 11, 2009, at 9:45 am