It’s enough to drive even the most exacting writers, proofers, and editors a little batty sometimes: More than one descriptive word precedes a noun, forming what we call a compound modifier. Do we need to hyphenate the words, or are they well enough left alone? What if we have two words modifying another word and all three describe the same noun, creating a package that begs for punctuation?
Sometimes the solution is simple, as we’ve covered in our hyphen rules. Rule 1 advises hyphenating two or more words acting as a single idea when they come before a noun (late-arriving train, ne’er-do-well teenager, one-of-a-kind invention).
Exceptions to this rule are compound modifiers that include adverbs such as much and very as well as any -ly adverb (much maligned administrator, very good cake, easily remembered song).
We also wouldn’t hyphenate a compound that’s an obvious unit such as most proper nouns (Social Security check) and foreign expressions (quid pro quo exchange).
When a two-word descriptor takes the form of a compound noun (e.g., real estate, high school, sales tax), hyphenation becomes a matter of preference. Some writers and editors identify the compound nouns as clearly understood units while others still hyphenate them to maintain stylistic consistency and remove any chance of confusion.
real estate advisor vs. real-estate advisor
high school dance vs. high-school dance
sales tax increase vs. sales-tax increase
In Rule 5 of Hyphens, we also emphasize including a hyphen with a compound modifier anytime omitting one could lead to ambiguity.
Potentially misaimed: Springfield has little town charm. (If we omit the hyphen, we’re suggesting Springfield lacks appeal. Is that what we want to say?)
Clearer with hyphen: Springfield has little-town charm. (The punctuation establishes that Springfield has the charm of a small, cozy town.)
Potentially misaimed: That is a fast running machine. (Is it a machine that runs fast, or a running machine [i.e., a treadmill] that operates faster than others?)
Clearer with hyphen: That is a fast-running machine. (a machine that runs fast)
The guidelines thus far help define and apply hyphenation of preceding descriptors. The next question concerns what to do when we run into phrases such as stippling technique influenced painter and apple orchard scented candle.
If we employ basic hyphenation, we wind up with phrases such as stippling-technique-influenced painter and apple-orchard-scented candle. While such punctuation can be acceptable, it can also be unsightly and distracting. Some editors feel it muddles phrasal components of careful writing.
To solve this, some style guides turn to the en dash, which is longer than the hyphen and shorter than the em dash. We have explored the mark in The Elusive En Dash. The article points out that many daily publications and their supporting style guides, such as The Associated Press Stylebook, do not use the en dash for compound descriptors. Conversely, most books and other formal publications and their style guides, including The Chicago Manual of Style, do apply it (CMOS recommends using it sparingly).
In careful writing, the hyphen connects immediately related words (late-arriving train, little-town charm). The en dash more clearly identifies descriptive units within modifiers of three or more words when they include a compound noun. In stippling technique influenced painter, stippling technique is a compound noun modifying influenced. It therefore remains open (no punctuation); it is then connected as a multipart modifier to influenced with the en dash. In total, the three descriptive words complete the noun phrase stippling technique–influenced painter.
If we write other mutations such as stippling technique-influenced painter and stippling-technique–influenced painter, we compromise accurately marked word relationships and correct treatment of parts of speech. We also create traffic jams of punctuation.
The same principles apply to apple orchard–scented candle. Apple orchard is the compound noun left open to identify it as such. The en dash then connects the compound unit to scented to complete the three-word modifier of candle.
In step with all of our grammatical principles, our aim is always precision and clarity. While you may not see them working together very often, further understanding the functions of the hyphen and the en dash will sharpen your mission to write with precision.
In the following sentences, identify whether the italicized phrase would require a hyphen, an en dash, or no punctuation because it is a compound noun.
1. The expensive looking car must belong to one of those pro athletes over there.
a) hyphen: expensive-looking car
b) en dash: expensive–looking car
c) no punctuation: expensive looking car
2. The corn starch amended food is cheaper to produce but now lesser in protein.
a) hyphen: corn-starch amended food
b) en dash: corn starch–amended food
c) no punctuation: corn starch amended food
3. I’ve been waiting at the train station for more than two hours.
a) hyphen: train-station
b) en dash: train–station
c) no punctuation: train station
1. a) The expensive-looking car must belong to one of those pro athletes over there.
Explanation: expensive-looking is a compound modifier of car.
2. b) The corn starch–amended food is cheaper to produce but now a lesser source of protein.
Explanation: the words corn starch amended modify food, and corn starch is a compound noun describing amended.
3. c) I’ve been waiting at the train station for more than two hours.
Explanation: train station is a compound noun not modifying another word.
Posted on Tuesday, August 21, 2018, at 11:00 pm
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