American English is a rich, expressive language. At the same time, it includes words that sometimes appear to be alike but have slight distinctions. Without recognizing those subtleties, we might use one word when we mean another.
As, because, and since are three conjunctions that introduce subordinate clauses (those that cannot stand alone in sentences) connecting a result and a reason. A closer understanding of these words helps us write with greater clarity and emphasis in achieving this.
We use because when we want to focus more on the reason. We use as and since when we wish to center on the result.
Most commonly, the because clause emphasizing the reason ends the sentence; the as or since clause stressing the result starts the sentence.
Result: She got the promotion over four other candidates.
Reason: She knew the system best.
Sentence emphasizing the reason with because clause: She got the promotion over four other candidates because she knew the system best.
Sentence emphasizing the result with as clause: As she knew the system best, she got the promotion over four other candidates.
Sentence emphasizing the result with since clause: Since she knew the system best, she got the promotion over four other candidates.
The placement of the because, as, or since clause can be changed in the sentences above. Some writers might contend that only the shifted because clause maintains effective fluency while the repositioned as and since clauses sound more stilted. Moving the clauses will also change the emphasis by switching the order of the result and the reason.
Because she knew the system best, she got the promotion over four other candidates.
She got the promotion over four other candidates, as she knew the system best.
She got the promotion over four other candidates, since she knew the system best.
Because is more common than as or since in both writing and speaking, suggesting we typically emphasize reasons more than results. As and since also are considered more formal in usage.
Looking at the details of these conjunctions polishes another tool in our quest to be writers of precision and eloquence.
Posted on Wednesday, February 21, 2018, at 8:30 am
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