Italics vs. Quotation Marks

Up until a few decades ago, writers had two choices: write in longhand or use a typewriter. Typewriters had one font. The characters were one size only. If you wanted to cut and paste, you needed scissors and adhesive tape.

Writing in italics was all but impossible, except for professional printing companies.

Thanks to today’s computer keyboards, we now have access to italics. So we need a sensible plan for when to use them and when to use quotation marks. Here is a formula we recommend: Put the title of an entire composition in italics. Put the title of a short work—one that is or could be part of a larger undertaking—in quotation marks.

By “composition” we mean a creative, journalistic, or scholarly enterprise that is whole, complex, a thing unto itself. This includes books, movies, plays, TV shows, newspapers, magazines, websites, music albums, operas, musical theater, paintings, sculptures, and other works of art.

The following sentence illustrates the principle: Richard Burton performed the song “Camelot” in the 1960 Broadway musical Camelot. Although the word is the same, “Camelot” the song takes quotation marks because it’s part of a larger work—namely, a full-length show called Camelot.

Italics are also widely used with names of ships, trains, and planes, e.g., the Titanic, the 20th Century Limited, the Spirit of St. Louis. (Note: with ships, do not italicize prefixes such as USS or HMS.)

Quotation marks are customary for components, such as chapter titles in a book, individual episodes of a TV series, songs on a music album, and titles of articles or essays in print or online.

Titles of plays, long and short, are generally italicized. Titles of poems and shorter works of fiction are generally in quotation marks. Long poems, short films, and the extended stories known as “novellas” are a gray area; some people italicize the titles, others put them in quotation marks.

You won’t go wrong with this policy: For a full-blown composition, put the title in italics. For something smaller and less ambitious, e.g., a short story as opposed to a sprawling novel, put the title in quotation marks. That’s the long and the short of it.


Pop quiz
Place italics and quotation marks where they should go.

1. Elvis Presley sang Love Me Tender in the movie Love Me Tender.
2. Chapter 4 of Beautiful Ruins is called The Smile of Heaven.
3. Who sang God Save the Queen on the HMS Bounty?


Pop quiz answers
1. Elvis Presley sang “Love Me Tender” in the movie Love Me Tender.
2. Chapter 4 of Beautiful Ruins is called “The Smile of Heaven.”
3. Who sang “God Save the Queen” on the HMS Bounty? (no points if you italicized HMS)

Posted on Monday, June 16, 2014, at 10:39 pm

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64 Comments on Italics vs. Quotation Marks

64 responses to “Italics vs. Quotation Marks”

  1. Matt S. says:

    Is this italicizing to be limited to when the subject name is being “set up”, or tediously every time it is used from now on? Why only certain proper nouns (ships, etc.) and not all proper nouns?

    The ship Toastless can be seen from the building Superior Glass.

    (The terms the ship and the building are setting up a space where the reader will understand an excessive noun or phrase to be the name of the otherwise unspecified object.)

    If I have to italics every “Titanic” in a book about the Titanic, I’ll go crazy.

    • The italicized title of anything must maintain the italics with every mention.

      We cannot say how or why the convention of italicizing certain proper nouns rather than all proper nouns came about, but really now, would you want to be known as Matt Smith?

    • Amina says:

      It doesn’t have to be that hard. When you’re finished, use the Find and Replace function of your word processing software to do the heavy lifting for you.

  2. Frank says:

    The emergence of computer editing software has truly made some differences in our writing habits and it has also caused us to question some grammar rules. Great post, definitely helpful for everyone who writes for a living.

  3. Nori K. says:

    My understanding was that, the first time you use, say, a term of art, you set it off in quotation marks. For example, you might write that a “record of survey” is a document in which a surveyor records material discrepancies with earlier surveys. When you use the term after that, my understanding is that you don’t keep using the quotation marks. For example, if I were writing a report on records of survey, I would drop the quotation marks after the first explanation, as I have here. I wanted to confirm that on your website, but I didn’t see this type of situation referenced under “quotation marks.” Would you please reply, so that my records of survey are correctly punctuated?

    • We do not address this either in our book or on our website as it is fairly specialized, and there is no general agreement among references on the approach. However, we did find the following items, which may be helpful:

      The Chicago Manual of Style refers to a “key term,” which should be italicized on its first occurrence only. That could apply to record of survey.

      Perhaps more helpful is the Oxford Guide to Style which says, “Use quotation marks to enclose an unfamiliar word or phrase, or one to be used in a technical sense. The effect is similar to that of highlighting the term through italics …
      Most often quotation marks should be used only at the first occurrence of the word or phrase in a work; thereafter it may be considered to be fully assimilated.”

  4. Nancy H. says:

    I’m editing the small, ten-page annual yearbook, of a small chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution organization. The chapter reads aloud three famous quotes during the openings of their monthly meetings, “The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag”, The American’s Creed”, and “The Star-Spangled Banner”. For convenience, the words are printed in the booklet. I can not find a rule for quotation marks enclosing the whole pledge, the whole creed, or the whole song. Thank you for any assistance you can give me.

    • There is no generally agreed-upon “rule” among the leading grammar references that apply to this particular circumstance. Options include using a block indent, enclosing the quotes in quotation marks, and italicizing. We recommend choosing a style and being consistent.

  5. Jaime N. says:

    I’m writing a book in which the character is telling the story of her life. Would I use quotation marks on everything that she says while she is telling the story? Or would I stop once the story got going? On one hand she is telling of her thoughts and feelings but on the other is seems a little much to have so many quotation marks. Advice?

  6. Leslie Snipes says:

    How does one use quotation marks when quoting something that contains a list? For example, where do the quotation marks go if I want to quote this?

    There are different schools of thought about years and decades. The following examples are all in widespread use:
    the 1990s
    the 1990’s
    the ’90s
    the 90’s

    From here:

    • It might be best to place the quote in paragraph form instead of a vertical list. says, “There are different schools of thought about years and decades. The following examples are all in widespread use: the 1990s, the 1990’s, the ’90s, the 90′s.”
      One could also use italics, or even bold, to set off the examples if quotation marks are distracting.

  7. Jack S. says:

    I have something that isn’t very clear for quotation marks:

    If I said that a girl was my friend.

    And another person went on a big rant about how I should treat my girlfriend with respect.

    And I said,

    Look, saying the girl is my “friend” is not the same as saying she is my “girlfriend.”

    This was not the exact conversation but that’s how I used the quotation marks. It was then said that I used them incorrectly. I’ve looked on several grammar sites but I cannot find that precise rule for that kind of quotation mark scenario. I was wondering if you could tell me if I used it correctly?

    • We assume you are asking about the use of quotation marks in a written dialogue, even though it sounds like you’re describing an oral conversation. Your use of the word friend fits closely enough within the description of our Rule 5a of “Quotation Marks“: Quotation marks are often used with technical terms, terms used in an unusual way, or other expressions that vary from standard usage.

      Therefore, your use of quotation marks is acceptable. You could also have placed the words friend and girlfriend in italics.

  8. Lacey says:

    What about underlining? If my fifth grade students are writing short stories, would they underline their work since they are writing them by hand?

  9. Tonya says:

    What about a list (as in an order of service) where there are song titles, Sermon titles, and general actions. Like:

    Prelude Pianist
    “Shine, Jesus Shine” Choir
    Welcome Pastor
    “Wise Men Still Seek Him” Pastor

  10. Bethany says:

    I understand that unfamiliar/technical terms are usually enclosed in quotation marks the first time they are used. However, would you do the same in this situation when it is preceded by “the word” twice?

    Many times, people use the word “church” to refer to a building where people gather to worship God. The Bible also uses the word church as the name for God’s family.

    • Yes, the quotation marks should be used again. Since the word church might not be considered an unfamiliar or technical term, it could also be italicized instead of enclosed in quotation marks.

  11. Dubcapt23 says:

    I am editing a non-fiction, scientific type book, which includes many terms that I would could consider to be new, proprietary terms. I have been trying to figure out whether to use quotation marks or italics since the author, being an ESL speaker, does not maintain consistent form. I see from the above conversations that if I use quotation marks, that I could technically drop them after the initial introduction of the term. However, as I get deeper into the book and having maintained that policy, I have come to a section that has applied italics rather than quotation marks for technical terms. Also, the technical term that is using quotation marks goes on to have lengthy explanations which use the term repeatedly, to define and to then to give examples of its applications. My first reaction would be to use quotation marks on the initial use and then italicize the following placements within the initial paragraph, and then to drop the usage in the following text, as it should be assimilated and understood by then. I believe that this is how I have seen textbooks in the past use this technique. Can you give me some clarity? {Please:)}

  12. Sally McKenzie says:

    Ann was acting as though the: I’m bored and frustrated and can’t find the right niche for my many talents chat had never taken place.

    Should I use italics or inverted commas for the words – I’m bored and frustrated…many talents chat. ??

    These words were not spoken exactly like that by Ann so they are not a precise quote, but I feel they need highlighting somehow.

    • A colon is not necessary. You could get away with quotation marks: Ann was acting as though the “I’m bored and frustrated and can’t find the right niche for my many talents” chat had never taken place.
      Some would use hyphens: Ann was acting as though the I’m-bored-and-frustrated-and-can’t-find-the-right-niche-for-my-many-talents chat had never taken place.
      You could also try italics: Ann was acting as though the I’m bored and frustrated and can’t find the right niche for my many talents chat had never taken place.

  13. Bob B. says:

    I was wondering if one uses a website address in a sentence should it be placed between quotes?

    • While there are no established rules on this, we follow the practice of making links out of the website addresses for the convenience of the reader. Since links are automatically underlined, we leave it at that. When we wish to give special emphasis to the link, we will make it bold.

  14. Dinora says:

    Is the subject of an e-mail to be put in quotation marks or typeset in italics?

    • No. The subject line in an email does not allow italics, and using quotation marks in the subject of an email could result in the email being marked as spam.

      • Dinora says:

        Oh, I meant when referring to it in a text, as in “In an e-mail entitled / with the subject ‘The State of the Public Health System in Cedar Rapids’, Mr. Johnson said…”. How does that work? Quotation marks?

        • Although there is no formal rule that applies specifically to email subjects, we recommend using quotation marks rather than italics. Single quotation marks are fine if it is a quotation within a quotation. (Remember that the comma should go inside the quotation marks: “In an email with the subject ‘The State of the Public Health System in Cedar Rapids,’ Mr. Johnson said …”)

  15. Rob White says:

    An error here. Quotation marks are for just that – quotations! So, an extract from a book or poem. Title marks (for want of a better phrase) are used for, e.g., book names, like ‘Ulysses’, and ship names too (not the nomenclature, such as H.M.S., just the actual name)- like H.M.S. ‘Hampshire’; but only when italics – the proper method – are not available. (As in this comment box!)

  16. Cas C. says:

    The word for a local performance is ENCORE! – ( including the exclamation mark!)

    How do you punctuate it, if needed, after the mark?

    I am going to see Encore!. (Period follows it?)
    Are you going to Encore!? (Question mark follows it???)
    These belong to Encore!’s records. (‘S follows the exclamation mark??)
    All awkward…but what do you do??

    • Most editors would use quotation marks or italics for Encore! If it is a full-length show, italics are preferred. Here are some alternatives. Note where the italics stop:
      I am going to see “Encore!” (no period)
      Are you going to “Encore!”? OR … to Encore!?

  17. Lela B. says:

    What type of punctuation would be used to indicate the use of air quotes?

  18. Tanya says:

    What if I’m quoting a question, but the sentence hasn’t ended yet? For example:
    He asked, “What happened” and I told him he went through a stop sign. Or:
    He asked, “What happened?” and I told him he went through a stop sign. (I put colons so to not use more quotation marks unnecessarily)

  19. DJ says:

    Updating a procedure that is full of items bolded, italicized, and in quotation marks (all three at once).

    Examples (the words in quotation marks are also bold and italicized):

    Use “Quotes” for highlighting information. Use “Red” font for Team One.

    I may have to simply go with quotation marks around anything that needs to be highlighted, as that is what people are used to using. I think using bold or italics alone would suffice and stand out better as an instruction.

    • Using all three methods certainly seems like overkill. We find it most effective to minimize these distractions. Your example sentences don’t necessarily require any of them:
      Use quotation marks for highlighting information. Use red font for Team One.

  20. Irene Childs says:

    Should The Pledge of Allegiance be in quotation marks?

  21. Wendy Weiss says:

    In writing about an exhibition of artwork, do I use italics for the title of the exhibition?
    Do I also use italics for the specific artworks in the exhibition?

    • The Chicago Manual of Style says, “Smaller exhibitions (e.g., at museums) and the titles of exhibition catalogs (often one and the same) are italicized.” As mentioned in the article above, titles of paintings and other works of art are also italicized.

  22. Me says:

    What is HMS in the third pop quiz question?

  23. Sofia says:

    If I start each chapter of a non fiction book with a quote, do I

    Italicize the quote?
    Use quote marks?
    Do both?

  24. Barbara Dunton says:

    I just read two books that do not use quotation marks for the characters speaking. Is this something new in publishing?

    • Because it is mainly invention and imagination, fiction writing allows more liberty to break from certain grammatical conventions to achieve an authorial style and voice. Chuck Palahniuk, the author of popular novels such as Fight Club, is but one writer who often includes dialogue without quotation marks. Nonfiction writing would rarely apply such usage.

  25. MW says:

    How would you style the title of a course (that lasts several days) at an independent institute? Is either the course name or the name of the institute italicized or in quotes?

  26. Nathan Brown says:

    Should characters names in movies be surrounded by quotation marks?

  27. Robin Bradley says:

    I am writing a work of fiction. In it, there is a condo building which is referred to several times by its name, The Peacock. Should the name of the building be in italics – once, every time it is mentioned? Likewise with the name of museum that a character visits and then talks about afterwards. Should the name of the museum be in italics?

  28. Melissa says:

    Do we use italics or quotation marks for an invention?

  29. Viktor says:

    Can italics and quotation marks both be used to express speech? I know that italics are usually used for displaying thought in written dialogue, and quotation marks with speech, but I have an example from Philip Larkin’s “Faith Healing” which uses italics for what appears to be spoken words. With italics represented by quotes, the example is: “‘Now dear child, what’s wrong,’ the deep American voice demands…” Is this just another way to show speech or is there a deeper meaning?

    • Because it is mainly invention and imagination, fiction writing allows more liberty to break from certain grammatical conventions to achieve an authorial style and voice. Decisions regarding italics vs. quotation marks may be those of the author, editor, or publisher.

  30. Todd T says:

    I am working on a book that includes the name of a movie in the title.
    [movie name] Jigsaw Puzzle Book

    How should I handle it when writing the name of the book in a document?

    • We are not aware of any specific requirement other than to italicize the whole title, e.g., Movie Name Jigsaw Puzzle Book. If you have a publisher for your book, the editors will recommend a style to follow. Otherwise, you may be free to develop your own style, e.g., “Movie Name” Jigsaw Puzzle Book or Movie Name Jigsaw Puzzle Book, or something of your invention.

  31. John says:

    Would you use italics or quotation marks for a single letter? For example, the sentence “The r is missing in the word American.” I would italicize American, but it is hard to see that the “r” is italicized since it is only one letter, so it seems best to put it in quotes.

    • The Chicago Manual of Style’s Rule 7.64 says, “Individual letters and combinations of letters of the Latin alphabet are usually italicized.” The Associated Press Stylebook does not use italics and recommends quotation marks. If you have the capability to use italics, we recommend using that method with individual letters. Otherwise, choose a method and be consistent.

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