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Apostrophes with Names Ending in s, ch, or z

Are you confused about how to show the plural and the possessive of certain names? Maybe you know to write I met the Smiths, I drove Brenda Smith’s Ferrari, and I visited the Smiths’ house. But what if the name is Sanchez or Church or Williams?

Rule: To show the plural of a name that ends with a ch, s, or z sound, add es. If a name ends in ch, but is pronounced with a hard k sound, its plural will require s, rather than es.

Examples:
The Sanchezes will be over soon.
The Thomases moved away.
The Churches have arrived but the Bohmbachs are running late.

 
Rule: To show singular possession of a name ending in ch, add ’s on the end of the name.

Example:
Harry Birch’s house

 
Rule: To show singular possession of a name ending in s or z, some writers add just an apostrophe. Others also add another s. See Rules 1b and 1c of Apostrophes for more discussion.

Examples:
Bill Williams’ car OR Bill Williams’s car
Mrs. Sanchez’s children

 
Rule: To show plural possession of a name ending in s, ch, or z, form the plural first; then immediately use the apostrophe.

Examples:
the Williamses’ car
the Birches’ house
the Sanchezes’ children

 

Pop Quiz

Choose the correct proper noun in each sentence below. The original proper noun is in parentheses.

1. I’m going to marry Ms. Straus’/Strauses’/Straus’s daughter. (Straus)

2. The Ortiz’/Ortizes’/Ortiz’s dog bit the mailman. (Ortiz)

3. My son can’t seem to get enough of Sandi Finches/Finches’/Finch’s fried chicken. (Finch)

4. The Ames/Amess/Ameses are coming home from vacation tomorrow. (Ames)

 

Pop Quiz Answers

1. I’m going to marry Ms. Straus’s daughter. (OR Ms. Straus’ daughter)

2. The Ortizes’ dog bit the mailman.

3. My son can’t seem to get enough of Sandi Finch’s fried chicken.

4. The Ameses are coming home from vacation tomorrow.

Posted on Tuesday, July 28, 2009, at 9:17 am


129 Comments on Apostrophes with Names Ending in s, ch, or z

129 responses to “Apostrophes with Names Ending in s, ch, or z

  1. Billy Henderson says:

    Hi! I love this, now i can study for english in peace

  2. Anne Hintch says:

    Our last name is Hintch. I am working with an online card creator and they don’t use plural possessive apostrophes in their card examples. For our Christmas card shouldn’t it be: The Hintches’ Top 10 Moments of 2013 instead of The Hintches Top 10 Moments of 2013?

  3. Jeff says:

    Awesome; and funny! We had a question in some legal drafting on how to pluralize and possess the last name “Sanchez”. Had to laugh when we read the examples!

  4. Karen says:

    I am painting personalized items for Christmas, such as “The Hansons”. How do I punctuate names that end in ‘s’ such as Jones. In the past I have done “The Jones'” but I’m not sure that is right. Other times I painted “The Jones Family” to get around it!!

    • Family names ending in s become plural by adding es on the end, after the s. Therefore, the members of the Jones family are the Joneses.

      • E says:

        But the family name shouldn’t be plural when speaking of the family unit. If the word “family” comes after the family surname, the family name should remain singular. You wouldn’t write “The Smiths Family.”

        • Perhaps you did not understand Karen’s question. She asked how to “punctuate” the last name Jones as an alternative to writing “the Jones family.” In other words, she was asking about the spelling of the plural and whether or not an apostrophe was necessary. We did not advise her to write “the Joneses family,” but we did reply that a personalized item could be painted with “the Joneses,” for multiple people with the last name Jones.

  5. Kim says:

    How about I appreciated Dr. Strichartz help in this matter. Strichartz’ Strichartzes’??

    • To show singular possession of a name not ending in s (even if ending with an s sound, like your example) use the apostrophe and an s.
      I appreciated Dr. Strichartz’s help.
      To show singular possession of a name ending in s (such as Jones) some writers and editors add an apostrophe only (Jones’ car) and some add an apostrophe plus another s (Jones’s car).

  6. Vicky says:

    Please help me.

    I ordered a Christmas plaque for my sister and her husband which says

    Christmas at the Henderson’s

    Is the apostrophe correct? I thought there should be one.

    Any thoughts?

    Thank you.

    • Since the plaque implies “Christmas at the Hendersons’ home,” you are correct that there should be an apostrophe. “Hendersons” refers to more than one person; therefore, the apostrophe should go after the s.

      Christmas at the Hendersons’

  7. Rus says:

    How do you punctuate possesion if the name ends with an s like Chris or Rus?

    • There are conflicting rules about how to show possession when writing names that end in s. Some writers and editors add only an apostrophe to all nouns ending in s. And some add ’s to every proper noun. There is no right answer; the best advice is to choose a formula and stay consistent. You can write either Chris’ or Chris’s, Rus’ or Rus’s.

      • AJ says:

        Classically, it is not correct to just add an apostrophe to a last name that already ends in “s” if it is singular possessive. The logic is that all names should be treated the same. If it’s singular, whether a surname or first name, it should be apostrophe + “s.” I don’t care whether it’s James or John. Jones or Smith. If you’re talking about something that belongs to him, always add apostrophe “s.” For example, James’s bike. Mr. Jones’s house.

        • AJ says:

          Per the Modern Language Association, when “some writers” simply add an apostrophe after a singular proper noun ending in “s”, they are committing a stylistic error.

          • Not all writers follow MLA format. There are many different formats and style manuals, each one with different rules and practices. For example, a writer for a newspaper or magazine may follow the Associated Press Stylebook whose rule is “Singular proper names ending in s: Use only an apostrophe.”

        • As we mentioned in our reply to Rus, there are conflicting policies and theories about how to show possession when writing such nouns. There is no right answer; the best advice is to choose a formula and stay consistent.

  8. colleen says:

    My married last name is Drewes. I am trying to make a personalized plaque for the holidays. Would it read: Welcome to the Drewes’ Home ?????

  9. Sonja R. says:

    Hi–what would you do with “a fragment of Heraclitus(‘)”–keep the names original “s” and add the ‘? Add “s’s”? Simply say “…of Heraclitus”?

    Thanks!

    • You could write “a fragment of Heraclitus,” or “fragments of Heraclitus.” If you are referring to his writings in the possessive case, you could write either “Heraclitus’ fragments,” or “Heraclitus’s fragments.” Either is correct, just be consistent.

  10. sherry says:

    Can you answer this – Is it
    I Wanna’ Be Buzz’ Girl……
    OR
    I Wanna’ Be Buzz’s Girl….

    Thanks Jane

    • The grammatically correct way to write your sentence is “I want to be Buzz’s girl.” The word wanna is nonstandard, although it is acknowledged in some online dictionaries as a written form of “want to,” used informally.

  11. Becky says:

    Sorry, still confused a bit. My parents rec’d an outdoor plaque for their new home. Their last name is Andrus. The plaque says, The Andrus’s. We thought it should just be, The Andrus’ but now thinking, The Andruses’ if following your guidelines. Correct?

    • The plural of Andrus is Andruses. To show plural possession, make the proper noun plural first, then use the apostrophe. The Andruses’ implies “the Andruses’ house.”

  12. Bedi says:

    My family name is Bedi. I am getting a house name made to put it outside our house. Should it be Bedi’s or Bedis’

    • The plural of Bedi is Bedis. To show plural possession, make the proper noun plural first, then use the apostrophe. The Bedis’ would imply that this is “the Bedis’ house.” However, you could also write The Bedis if you wish to imply that “the Bedis live here.”

  13. Mel says:

    Following the rules, the plural form of the family name Fenech would be Feneches. But what happens when you have a plural possessive of this family name, i.e We took care of the Feneches’ dogs. Would that be correct?

  14. Karen says:

    What about if you are talking about two guys named Chris?

    My dear friend and his partner are both named Chris, do I say the Chrises?

    Thanks!

  15. Dinh Quan says:

    “Though disappoited with this the project’s preogress,Bob’s always kept trying to get it done.” Can help me to understand the implication of “Bob’s” ??? Thanks in advance!

    • The word “Bob’s” is used as a contraction for “Bob has” in your sentence. It is awkward and we recommend rewording to “Bob has.” There are other issues with the sentence.

      “Though disappointed with the project’s progress, Bob has always kept trying to get it done.”

  16. Éda Heloisa Pilla says:

    How do we write the possessive case for the word research in the sentence: The reseach ‘s end?
    Is this correct?
    Thank you

    Éda

  17. Gabi says:

    Thank you very much. This website has taught me a lot and I am no longer confused about possessive apostrophes. I can stop worrying now.

  18. Carol says:

    I would like to order a personalized Christmas plate for a wedding gift. The last name is Spanovich. Should the plate read “The Spanoviches”? Thanks for your help.

  19. Stranger says:

    I’m just wondering why the letter “s” is removed in the word Philippines to show its possession. Sample: “Philippine Airlines” instead of “Philippines Airline” or “Philippine Constitution” instead of “Philippines Constitution” or “Philippine National Police” and so on and so forth.

  20. Kory says:

    What if you’re just making a sign for your front door, or are buying a custom mat? How would that apply to a family with the last name Simms or Mathis? Technically, what you’re saying is, “The Simms home” or “The Simms family”. Would it appear “The Simms'”? “The Simms’s”? “The Simmses”?

    • The plural of Simms is Simmses. To show plural possession, make the proper noun plural first, then use the apostrophe. The Simmses’ implies that this is “the Simmses’ house.” However, you could also write The Simmses if you wish to imply that “the Simmses live here.” For the Mathis family, write The Mathises’ or The Mathises.

  21. Angel says:

    Hi! I am making a Christmas plaque for my newly married daughter & son in law’s home. Their last name is Ortiz. The plaque says Season’s Greetings from The Ortizs’ . Is this correct? Thank you we are all very confused!!!

  22. Jan says:

    I am having hanging family planner personalized for our home and just wanted to make sure that I am correct. I would like it to say The Colliers do I need an apostrophe S (The Collier’s) or is The Colliers the correct way to personalize? Thank you!

  23. jennifer says:

    I want to get the name the wiggins on a tree skirt and some other things do i write The Wigginses?

  24. Christine says:

    Hi! I am making return labels and I am a little confused. My last name is Humphreys. Do I put The Humphreys’s or The Humphreyes?

  25. Jan says:

    I want to have a doormat personalized. The family name is Fernandes, should it be “The Fernandeses”.

  26. mike says:

    Hello, i have a question in the sport of jujitsu they use terms like “shrimp” which means to get to your feet from being on your back. Also a term called “take the back” which means controlling your opponent from behind. So these are their jargon terms but my question is are these terms considered common nouns or proper nouns and how would you pluralize them. Would take the back be “take the backs”. I wanted to know if they are proper or common nouns so i could know how to pluralize them. Also if it is a common noun would the last word of the name always be pluralized like my example above take the backs.

  27. mike says:

    Hello, i have a question how would you pluralize a movie title. For instance war and peace, would you say how many war and peaces were sold today, and when it comes to proper nouns is the last name of the proper nouns the one that always gets pluralized. I Know pluralizing a movie would sound funny and i would probably word it to avoid the plural but i just want to know if technically would it be considered the proper way to pluralize it. If there was a movie or book called “the man who knew too much,” technically would it be proper to write “the man who knew too muches” being that it would be a proper noun.

  28. mike says:

    From what i understand when it comes to medical jargon if a term is named after a person it is a proper noun like Lou gehrig disease and ceasarian section. I noticied they are both pluralized by by the last name, being lou gehrig diseases and ceasarian sections is that the rule for proper nouns it is always the last word of the name? Are there instances where this is not the case when it comes to proper nouns? Also is the whole term considered a proper noun meaning not just the lou gehrig part but the whole term lou gehrig disease?

    • Most diseases are not capitalized, except for the presence of a proper noun. Lou Gehrig’s disease would be such an example. It’s hard to imagine a context in which this would be pluralized, except perhaps something like “Doctors specializing in the treatment of Lou Gehrig’s and Parkinson’s diseases are located on the fifth floor.”

  29. Mikaela says:

    I am ordering a stamp as a housewarming gift with last name Goetz including their new home address to be used for their outgoing mail. What is the proper way? The Goetzes or The Goetzes’?

  30. Renee C. says:

    How is it best to show possession of Coons? I’m confused. For example, Coons is a family name. It ends in S. I want to show possession. You are invited to the Coons’ house for a party?

    Or Coonses’ house for a party?

    I’ve always used Coons’ to show our name (multiple family members named Coons live in the house/are hosting the party). I’m ok being “old school” style in my writing-I just don’t want to completely incorrect.

    • As demonstrated in the rule above, to show plural possession of a name ending in s, form the plural first; then immediately use the apostrophe. The plural of Coons is Coonses. The possessive form is Coonses’.

  31. Denise Paul says:

    When ordering a sign how do I possessive the last name Lenz?

    • We assume that the sign is for the outside of a house, and that there is more than one member of the Lenz family.The plural of Lenz is Lenzes. To show plural possession, make the proper noun plural first, then use the apostrophe. The Lenzes’ implies that this is “the Lenzes’ house.” However, you could also write The Lenzes if you wish to imply that “the Lenzes live here.”

  32. KimK says:

    I am ordering a personalized wall plaque for a wine cellar that reads “The Krampitzes’ Wine Cellar”. Is that the correct plural and possession for the plaque? If it is correct but they only allow 14 characters with punctuation and spaces, how can I alter it?

  33. Mary Van Doren says:

    What about making a name such as Haselbach plural? To me, it would seem to be an exception because making it “Haselbaches”, as the rule requires, would change the pronunciation. (The end of the name is pronounced “back”.) My gut says it is better to use “Haselbachs”.

    • The examples we used for names ending in ch are “Church” and “Birch.” You are correct that you would not add es to make a name ending in a k sound plural. We revised the rule and added an example to the blog to clarify this point.

  34. Gabi says:

    What if your last name ends in “Z” and you are just making a Christmas ornament that has memories listed but it is for 2 people and the list is of them making the memories together. The example the company uses for the last name Parker is “The Parkers” but if ending in “Z” as in Parz, would it be “The Parz’s” because Parzes doesn’t look right. But then I’ve never really paid attention to someone’s last name on an ornament or plaques outside or mailbox. With all the info on the internet about “pluralizing” last names, to many confusing answers and they all seem to be for the same specific then “such as the Parz’s House” because several with the last name live there. So what is correct?

  35. Howard E. Halpern says:

    Thank you very much for this. Wasn’t sure if it was okay to end a name with z’ (as in Kambiz’). Now I know.

    My understanding is that if a name ends in a hard “s” sound, as “Jesus”, an apostrophe at the end is sufficient. However, if the name ends in a soft “s” sound, as “Princess”, pluralization requires an apostrophe followed by an additional “s”. The possessive of Jesus is pronounced exactly as is the word “Jesus”. The possessive of Princess is pronounced in the same way as its plural, “Princesses”.

    By the way, I am purposely placing punctuation after quotation marks because I have found that to do it in the conventional way tends to cause ambiguity and inconsistency. It is for this reason that some public relations writers refrain from enclosing the final period in quotation marks. I have decided to follow their practice, although it is not used by most writers.

    Thank you, again, for caring about linguistic usage. It is rare that I encounter anyone who does.

    • We are pleased to hear that you also care about English usage. You may find our Rules 1b and 1c of Apostrophes on our GrammarBook.com website helpful. There we further explain methods for showing possession with nouns ending in s. As you probably know, our Rule 3a of Quotation Marks, “Periods and commas always go inside quotation marks,” reflects the American English rule.

  36. Deanne says:

    How about this one: adding a possessive to a name ending in an “s” sound but with a silent “e?” Is it “Chase’s or Chase’?”

  37. Kris says:

    If I have a sentence that says “Hunter Thomas’s reputation follows him everywhere he goes…” etc. Is it Thomas’ or Thomas’s or Thomases’? I am so confused…Thanks in advance.

  38. Jaz says:

    My character is called Kunz. How do I put an apostrophe after his name? Would it be Kunz’ trophy or Kunzes’ trophy or Kunz’s trophy?

  39. Brandi says:

    If I made a plaque would I use for a last name “Leritz” Leritzes or Leritzs’ or something else?

    Also the same with the last name “Sievers” like welcome to the “Sievers'” home or “Leritzs’ home..?

    • The simple plural forms are “the Laritzes” and “the Sieverses.” Plaques that are written “Welcome to the Laritzes’ home” and “Welcome to the Sieverses’ home” are plural possessives and require apostrophes.

  40. Marie says:

    We’re going on a family road trip and I would like us to wear tshirts that says “The Delacruz Family Vacation or The Delacruz Road Trip” . Is it with “es” in the end or z’?

    Thanks.

    • There are many possibilities; here are three: The Delacruz Family Vacation (or Road Trip), The Delacruz Family’s Vacation (or Road Trip), or (if “family” is an adjective) The Delacruzes’ Family Vacation (or Road Trip).

  41. marsha says:

    trying to order a pre ink stamp , not sure the correct grammar

    the Suarez Family or The Suarezes Family

  42. Naomi says:

    Hi! I love your site, but I haven’t yet found my way to the answer for the following question: what is the plural form of Hercules? As in the aircraft, or more specifically, multiples of the aircraft?! Herculeses? Hercules’? Hercules? It’s one of those riddles that is caught in my brain! Thank you in advance.

  43. sasha says:

    If a teacher’s last name is Lopes do you write Ms. Lopes’ class to show possession? What if her last name is spelled Lopez?

  44. Bill says:

    Last name is Parsons
    Is it Parsons’
    Parsons’s
    Parsones’s

  45. Winnie De Guzman says:

    Which is correct? pacquiao is the Philippine’s or Philippines’ pride? Thanks!

  46. Brian says:

    hi, I am making a sign that says. Hess’ hide a way, Is this correct way of spelling Hess, read allot of conflicting reports. Thanks for your help.

    • If you are speaking about one person whose name is Hess, Hess’s and Hess’ are both acceptable. If you are speaking about more than one person whose name is Hess, Hesses’ would be correct. The word hideaway is usually spelled as one word.

  47. Alicia says:

    My married last name is Peetz. For a plaque, would it read “The Peetz” or “The Peetz’s” ? Thanks!!!

  48. Traci says:

    My fiance’s family name, Latiolais, is French and is pronounced Latch-o-lay. Since the s is silent, do I add an -es to pluralize? The rules for the French language are to only pluralizes the article. I have not found any reference to pluralize a silent s. Thank you for your help!

  49. Tracie says:

    Last name Goelz. For a holiday card would it be the Goelz’s?

  50. Pam says:

    How about the last name “Skeoch” pronounced “Skew”? Since the “ch” sound is not present, but rather a “W” sound would it follow the same rule as the hard “K” & the proper plural would be “Skeochs” rather than “Skeoches”

    Thanks!

    • This sort of spelling-pronunciation combination does not fall neatly into any hard-and-fast rules. Both “Skeochs” and “Skeoches” seem equally reasonable. Ask the most educated member of the Skeoch family what he or she suggests. If you don’t know the family, follow your own instincts, because this is a wash.

  51. Catherine says:

    I am having a plaque made that reads “The Evans Family Travels” or should it read “The Evans’ Family Travels”?

  52. Stacey Holloway says:

    I want to write: Merry Christmas! Love The Holloways

    Should it be: Love The Holloways
    Love The Holloway’s
    Love The Holloways’

  53. Geraldine Traver says:

    I am ordering personalized hot pads for my daughter and her future husband. The order form says to write the pluralized last name. I think it should be plural possessive. Their name is Bintz and the hot pad will say “THE (last name) KITCHEN”. Am I correct in submitting Bintzes’?

  54. Julie moorman says:

    I am personalizing gifts for christmas… I am Abit confused as to how I would do the Last name of Hust?

  55. Lori says:

    Name ends in a “z’ Is it Mr. Jimenez’s cat is fat or Mr. Jimenez’ cat is fat?

  56. AJ says:

    I have a couple students with apostrophes in their names and am unsure how to add a possessive.
    Ex. I’Miyjan
    Myta’e

  57. J.D. says:

    Thank you very much for this information! This article is very helpful and concise! :)

  58. Erica says:

    Hello,

    How do you treat a proper noun, that already ends in ‘s?
    For example, Macy’s or Elmer’s.

    I am writing direct emails to employees of certain companies where they commonly refer to their employer as “Macy’s” or “Elmer’s”. I thought of using the legal company names as a workaround (which would allow for the plural “‘s” to be applied to “Inc.” rather than the DBA) but it would work against the conversational tone of the emails.

    I appreciate any feedback…thank you!

  59. Juanita Allen says:

    To make a plural of a surname ending in a vowel – such as Kawamoto – would it be the Kawamotos or the Kawamoto’s?

  60. Jarris Wilkins says:

    As Jarris Wilkins, I have dealt with these grammatical matters for all of my life. In school, I was taught that the singular possessive of both of my names was the simple apostrophe, however, I have been corrected so many times for this usage that I had given up on it.

    You have given me the confidence to go on! My, that is Jarris’, pen thanks you.

  61. Seth says:

    How does one pluralize and form the possessive for a last name that ends with and “s” or “es” but is not pronounced? Also, how would one pronounce those forms of the name?
    For example “Dumas” pronounced “Duma” or the same in DeMarais.

    • Similar to our November 17, 2015, reply to Traci, the plurals would be Dumases and DeMaraises. The plural forms of the names would be pronounced like the singular forms with an s sound at the end. The possessives would be Dumases’ and DeMaraises’ (see our Rule 2d of Apostrophes).

  62. Nicole says:

    When referring to a Board of Directors – would it be Board of Directors’ Meeting or Board of Director’s Meeting?

    • More information about this topic can be found in our posts Apostrophes and False Possessives and Confusing Possessives. The line between a possessive or genitive form and a noun used attributively is sometimes fuzzy. The Chicago Manual of Style recommends using an apostrophe in the term “farmers’ market,” although it acknowledges that terms similar to this sometimes appear without one. The word directors can be considered either a possessive noun (directors’) or an adjective describing the meeting (directors). “Board of directors” is not a proper noun, therefore it does not need to be capitalized. However, some companies capitalize it, so you might have to comply with the company’s ego rule.

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